T-STEM Surveys


Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes toward STEM Survey (T-STEM)

Non-NC State researchers and evaluators can request copies of the instruments by clicking on the Instrument Request Form link and choosing the appropriate instruments.  NC State K12 Outreach Providers should visit the NCSU Partners page for further information about survey use and the implementation process.  Please feel free to contact the Project Coordinator with any questions.


Each of the five Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Elementary Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes toward STEM Surveys (T-STEM) contains six scales (sets of surveys items that most confidently describe a single characteristic of the survey-taker when the responses to these items are calculated as a single result).[1] The first scale is called the Personal STEM Teaching Efficacy Belief Scale (PSTEBS) and consists of Likert-scale questions[2] which ask the respondent about their confidence in their teaching skills. The second scale is called the STEM Teaching Outcome Expectancy Scale (STOES) and consists of Likert-scale questions which ask the respondent about the degree to which they believe students’ learning can be impacted by effective teaching. The third scale addresses the frequency of student technology use, while the fourth addresses the frequency of some instructional practices. The fifth scale asks teachers about their attitudes toward 21st century learning. Final scale items in the survey ask teachers about their attitudes toward teacher leadership and their awareness of STEM careers. References to peer review publications reporting on the development and statistical analysis of these instruments will be posted as they become available.  For more information on the psychometric properties, please see this summary of the T-STEM Development And Psychometric Properties analyses and this T-STEM Tips For Using Data.

Appropriate Uses

The T-STEM surveys are intended to measure changes in STEM educators’ confidence and efficacy toward STEM; their attitudes toward 21st century learning and teacher leadership; the frequency with which they use some instructional practices related to STEM; and the frequency of student technology use. The surveys are available to help program coordinators make decisions about possible improvements to their program.

Data and Reporting

The T-STEM surveys collect perceptive data (what respondents think or feel) from teachers regarding their teaching confidence and efficacy and attitudes, and frequency data regarding the use specific instructional practices and technology in the classroom. Responses are collected through an online system or paper and analyzed at the scale- and item-level. Results reports provide pictures of aggregated participant attitudes and the frequencies with which activities are taking place during STEM instructional time.

Using the T-STEM Survey

The Friday Institute will grant you permission to use these instruments for educational, non-commercial purposes only. You may use an instrument as is, or modify it to suit your needs, but in either case you must credit its original source. By using this instrument you agree to allow the Friday Institute to use the data collected for additional validity and reliability analysis. The Friday Institute will take appropriate measures to maintain the confidentiality of all data.  Please fill out the Friday Institute Instrument Request Form to request copies of the surveys.

Recommended citation for this survey:

Friday Institute for Educational Innovation (2012). Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes Toward STEM Survey, Raleigh, NC: Author.


The development of this survey was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1038154 and by the Golden LEAF foundation.
The framework for part of this survey was developed from the following sources:

Riggs, I. M., & Enochs, L. G. (1990). Toward the development of an elementary teachers science teaching efficacy belief instrument. Science Education, 74(6), 625-637. doi: 10.1002/sce.3730740605


[1] The Pilot Elementary Teacher Attitudes toward STEM Survey contains four scales – the survey consists of the pilot mathematics and pilot science teacher surveys combined since the vast majority of elementary teachers instruct both subjects.

[2] Likert-scale survey items ask respondents to report the degree to which they agree or disagree with a given statement. The PSTEBS, STOES, and 21st century learning attitudes scales ask respondents to rate their level of agreement on a five-point response-scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.”